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焦虑障碍Anxiety Disorders(中英对照)

焦虑障碍Anxiety Disorders(中英对照

关键词:焦虑、强迫症、恐惧症、社交焦虑、惊恐、心理治疗、心理辅导、anxiety、obsessive-compulsive disorder、OCD、phobia、social anxiety、panic、psychotherapy、counseling

 

什麽是焦虑障碍?

焦虑就是感觉不安或紧张的状态。有时候感觉焦虑是正常的,比如在工作面试或考试的时候。这种焦虑通常是比较轻度并不会长时间持续存在。

 

如果焦虑体验比较强烈,长时间持续,或者经常有焦虑的时候,您就可能患有焦虑障碍。具有焦虑障碍的人可能较难完成事情、工作、或与他人相处。总之,会影响到工作、生活、或学习。

 

 

焦虑障碍的原因是什麽呢?

造成焦虑障碍的原因不是一种。家族史、大脑化学物质、和压力都可能在其中起作用。

 

 

焦虑障碍的症状

有些症状是所有的焦虑障碍共有的, 比如:

 

-          很多莫名的恐惧

-          担忧不好的事情会发生

-          身体症状:如心慌、呼吸困难、出汗、头晕、胃不舒服,等等。

 

焦虑障碍的类型

 

恐惧症:

是对根本没有危险或者很小危险的事物的强烈恐惧。常见的例子有对动物(比如狗、蛇)的恐惧;恐高、害怕封闭的空间(如电梯、飞机);怕血、怕打针等。

 

 

社交焦虑:

指一个人总是害怕被人注视或担心别人对自己的看法。患有社交焦虑的人害怕在公共场合出丑,他们会害怕到公共场合去,害怕见陌生人,或者害怕当中讲话等等。

 

 

惊恐障碍:

指没有征兆突然出现的恐惧状态。当“惊恐发作”的时候,患者会有非常明显的身体症状(比如心悸、呼吸困难)使得他们相信自己即将失去自我控制能力或者即将死亡。他们会担心下一次惊恐发作的时间和地点,他们会避免到他们认为可能会出现惊恐发作的地方去,致使有的患者甚至不敢离开家门。

 

 

 

 

广泛性焦虑症

患有广泛性焦虑障碍的人无法停止担忧生活中的日常事情。他们会没有缘由地老是担心不好的的事情将会发生。

 

 

强迫症:

患有强迫症地人会有令人不安的观念/影像在脑子中重复出现,这些观念或影像使得他们一遍又一遍地重复做某些事情。这些令人不安地观念或影像叫做“固着/强迫观念”。重复的行为叫做“强迫行为”。强迫行为只能短暂地缓解患者的焦虑。

 

 

急性应激障碍:

急性应激障碍的患者通常刚经历过非常强烈的,使他们感到已经威胁到他们生命的应激事件。他们感到非常害怕和无助。他们通常具有关于这些经历的鲜明记忆并且感到自己好像一遍遍地重历这些事件。这些思想和感觉通常在几个星期内缓解。

 

 

创伤后应激障碍:

创伤后应激障碍的患者经过非常可怕的事件(比如强奸、战争、折磨、虐待、地震、飓风等)。他们总是感到恐惧和不安全,总是回避可能使他们记起那些经历的事情。他们感觉好像同样的事在一遍遍地重复发生。

 

 

焦虑障碍的治疗

焦虑障碍对治疗的反应良好。治疗方法包括放松、静思、压力缓解等。心理治疗和辅导对很多人都有帮助。有些人可能需要药物配合。家人、朋友、和自助小组的支持也很重要。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FWTherapy  FWT心理工作室

416-816-9721

fwtherapy@yahoo.com

www.francywang.com

www.fwtherapy.com

 

What are Anxiety Disorders?

Anxiety is when a person feels nervous or tense. It is normal to feel anxious at times, such as during a job interview or when writing a test. This kind of anxiety is often mild and does not last a long time.

 

When anxiety is strong, lasts a long time or happens a lot, it may be a sign of an anxiety disorder. People with anxiety disorders may find it hard to get things done, to work or to spend time with others.

 

What causes Anxiety Disorders?

There is no one reason why someone develops an Anxiety Disorder. Family history, brain chemistry and stress play a big role in producing the illness.

 

Signs and Symptoms

All the anxiety disorders share some common signs:

 

-          A lot of fear that does not make sense

-          Worry that something bad might happen

-          Body signs (e.g. racing heart, problems breathing, sweating, dizziness, upset stomach, etc.)

 

Types of Anxiety Disorders

 

Phobias:

A strong fear of something that has little or no real danger. Some common examples are fear of animals (e.g. dogs, snakes), heights, closed in

spaces (e.g. elevators, airplanes), fear of seeing blood or getting a needle, etc.

 

Social Anxiety Disorder:

A strong fear of always being watched and judged by others. People with this disorder worry about being embarrassed in public. They may be afraid of going to public places or meeting strangers or eating in public or giving a speech, etc.

 

Panic Disorder:

Sudden feelings of terror that happen with no warning. During a “panic attack” people have such strong body signs (e.g. racing heart, problems breathing) that they may believe they are losing control or going to die. People with this disorder worry about when and where the next “panic attack” will happen. They stay away from places or things they think might cause a “panic attack”. Sometimes the worry is so strong that they cannot leave their home.

 

Generalized Anxiety Disorder:

People with this disorder cannot stop worrying about everyday things. They expect that something bad is going to happen, even if there is no real reason to worry.

 

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) People with OCD have repeated, upsetting thoughts or images that may make them do things over and over again. The upsetting thoughts or images are called “obsessions”. The actions that are done over and over again to make the thoughts go away are called “compulsions”. These actions give only brief relief from anxiety.

 

Acute Stress Disorder:

People with this disorder have gone through a very stressful event where they believed their life was in danger. They also felt very scared and as if nothing could help. They often have upsetting memories of the event and feel like they are reliving it over and over. These thoughts and feelings usually get better in a few weeks.

 

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder:

People with this disorder have lived through a veryterrible experience (e.g. rape, war, torture, abuse, earthquake, hurricane, etc.) They feelunsafe and scared all the time. They stay away from things that remind them of theexperience. They act or feel as if the event is happening again and again.

 

What are the treatments?

Anxiety Disorders can respond well to treatment. There are different types of treatments– such as relaxation, meditation and stress relief. Psychotherapy and counselling are helpful for many people. Some people may need medication to control their anxiety. Support from family, friends and self help groups can also be very helpful

 

FWTherapy  FWT心理工作室

416-816-9721

fwtherapy@yahoo.com

www.francywang.com

www.fwtherapy.com

 

 

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