关键词：焦虑、强迫症、恐惧症、社交焦虑、惊恐、心理治疗、心理辅导、anxiety、obsessive－compulsive disorder、OCD、phobia、social anxiety、panic、psychotherapy、counseling
What are Anxiety Disorders?
Anxiety is when a person feels nervous or tense. It is normal to feel anxious at times, such as during a job interview or when writing a test. This kind of anxiety is often mild and does not last a long time.
When anxiety is strong, lasts a long time or happens a lot, it may be a sign of an anxiety disorder. People with anxiety disorders may find it hard to get things done, to work or to spend time with others.
What causes Anxiety Disorders?
There is no one reason why someone develops an Anxiety Disorder. Family history, brain chemistry and stress play a big role in producing the illness.
Signs and Symptoms
All the anxiety disorders share some common signs:
- A lot of fear that does not make sense
- Worry that something bad might happen
- Body signs (e.g. racing heart, problems breathing, sweating, dizziness, upset stomach, etc.)
Types of Anxiety Disorders
A strong fear of something that has little or no real danger. Some common examples are fear of animals (e.g. dogs, snakes), heights, closed in
spaces (e.g. elevators, airplanes), fear of seeing blood or getting a needle, etc.
Social Anxiety Disorder:
A strong fear of always being watched and judged by others. People with this disorder worry about being embarrassed in public. They may be afraid of going to public places or meeting strangers or eating in public or giving a speech, etc.
Sudden feelings of terror that happen with no warning. During a “panic attack” people have such strong body signs (e.g. racing heart, problems breathing) that they may believe they are losing control or going to die. People with this disorder worry about when and where the next “panic attack” will happen. They stay away from places or things they think might cause a “panic attack”. Sometimes the worry is so strong that they cannot leave their home.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder:
People with this disorder cannot stop worrying about everyday things. They expect that something bad is going to happen, even if there is no real reason to worry.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) People with OCD have repeated, upsetting thoughts or images that may make them do things over and over again. The upsetting thoughts or images are called “obsessions”. The actions that are done over and over again to make the thoughts go away are called “compulsions”. These actions give only brief relief from anxiety.
Acute Stress Disorder:
People with this disorder have gone through a very stressful event where they believed their life was in danger. They also felt very scared and as if nothing could help. They often have upsetting memories of the event and feel like they are reliving it over and over. These thoughts and feelings usually get better in a few weeks.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder:
People with this disorder have lived through a veryterrible experience (e.g. rape, war, torture, abuse, earthquake, hurricane, etc.) They feelunsafe and scared all the time. They stay away from things that remind them of theexperience. They act or feel as if the event is happening again and again.
What are the treatments?
Anxiety Disorders can respond well to treatment. There are different types of treatments– such as relaxation, meditation and stress relief. Psychotherapy and counselling are helpful for many people. Some people may need medication to control their anxiety. Support from family, friends and self help groups can also be very helpful
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